Children from three partners is a deceptive language. From the third person, only mitochondria are taken, in which the amount of DNA is scanty, so to consider him as a parent is the same as a person after a bone marrow transplant considered “the child of three parents”. The technology of using donor mitochondria is not new, it was developed several years ago and has recently been improved. The meaning of the method is to increase the likelihood of having a healthy baby in a family where the risk of mitochondrial disease is high.
Mitochondria are structures that provide the cell with energy, and if their work is disrupted, diseases affecting various organs, especially those with a high level of metabolism, develop. Severe, disabling or lethal diseases that are not treatable. The use of donor mitochondria for such a family is simply a salvation, and such children have already been born. Legally, this is not yet seriously regulated, and it is not at all clear what can be prohibited here, this is essentially “ordinary” medical technology, if you do not pay attention to terms that are striking your imagination.
The first country in the world to allow the simultaneous use of the biomaterial of three people by artificial insemination was the United Kingdom. This technology is designed to prevent the transmission of hereditary diseases, such as diabetes. The bill was approved by the House of Lords: it was supported by 280 parliamentarians, 48 were opposed. Later, it was also supported by the House of Commons.
When using this technology, the nucleus of the egg of the mother, in which the mitochondrial DNA is damaged, is transplanted instead of the nucleus of the donor egg cell. Then the egg cell, which carries the genetic material of two women, is fertilized. Using this procedure, the child receives 0.2% of the genetic material from the donor and 99.8% of the genetic material from the mother and father.
Since the mitochondrial DNA is inherited through the maternal line, the woman who is the carrier of the defective mitochondrial DNA faces a difficult decision, because as a result, the child can develop diabetes, blindness, muscular dystrophy, and liver failure. Scientists believe that the technology of using donor mitochondria will help solve the problem. Opponents of the draft law, as usual, speak of the unethical nature of such a procedure and the danger of the proliferation of children created under a previously approved draft.
With a child from parents of the same sex is a completely different situation. This, alas, is simply biologically dangerous. To work properly, genes must be inherited from women and men, otherwise there will be big problems. There is such a class of hereditary diseases - imprinting diseases. They arise when, due to mutation, two copies of the gene are from one parent, and from the second, nothing. So, developing a technology for obtaining embryos from parents of the same sex means knowingly taking the risk of having a sick child. If a same-sex couple wants a common child, then they can raise it together, and it is still advisable to donate the germ cells for fertilization. It is better to observe biological safety.
Based on The Telegraph